History of Morocco

HISTORY OF MOROCCO

From the Neolithic time, migrations come from the North or east contribute to the implementation of the first populations.

. XIth century BC: installation of the phoenician people on the coast of Morocco.

The Phoenician, the entreprenants storekeepers, install them first establishments on coast Moroccan dices the XIth century avenue. J.-. and ports - counters as Tingi ( Tangier) or Lixus ( Larache). The Punic influence will be smelt near thousand years in Morocco, in its relations with the Berber headmen local: indeed from the VIth century, the Carthaginian it quète of gold (pulled(fired) by the Atlas), of purple (shell which we find to Mogador for example, and who gives the dye of the same name), are going to trade with the inhabitants of Morocco.

Chronology of the empire almoravide (XIe-XIIe century) *

They are rigorous warriors of the Islam 

 1035: At the conclusion of his pilgrimage in Mecca, Yahya Ibn Ibrahim, Berber leader .

1067 - 1147: gatherings of Morocco and Andalusia by Almoravides followed by prosperous time bound to the exchanges.

1069: At the beginning of the foundation of Marrakesh by major Abu Bakr Ibn Omar of movement Almoravide.

1091: Almoravides ( 1062-1147 ) seizes Cordoba, Almeria, Badajoz and Seville and order the exile of king sévillan Al-Mutamid Ibn Abbad. The expansion towards the East is stopped(arrested) by the presence of Cid in Valencia.

1147: Almohades ( 1147-1262 ) penetrates in Marrakesh, the capital almoravide. Dernièrs Almoravides took refuge in the Balearic Islands.



                                        

 

XI ème century sees the beginning of two big dynasties, the Almoravides Almohades Youssef ibn Tachfin the Berber dynasty of Sunni Almoravides, which will reign over Morocco until 1147 Almoravides is a Berber dynasty, from Sahara). The almoravide conquest corresponds to the passage of al-Andalus under dominion of Almoravides of the Maghreb. This period lasts from 1086 till 1142 .

In the XIIth century, Banû Hilal, nomads of Arabia, are enlisted as soldiers by the almohades sovereigns and installed(settled) by them on the lands of Gharb, Tadla and Haouz (lands Guich). Rome on plant Carthage and fact of the North of Morocco a Roman province.

The dynasty of Almohades the "Unitarians" those who proclaim the divine unity(unit), the descendants of Abdul-Mu'min is an amazigh and Moslem dynasty which is at the origin of the movement of religious reform, on the Maghreb and the Moslem Iberic peninsula from 1147 till 1269. Almohades opposes to Almoravides which dominate since the region of Marrakesh the enemble of Morocco and the Moslem Iberic peninsula then succeed them. One of the founders of the dynasty of Almohades Mohammed Ibn Toumert was a Berber been born by 1080 to Igilliz in a tribe in the northern hillside of The Atlas.

Almohades frees(releases) the city of Marrakesh from the hands of almoravides in 1147 


                                                                   History


1121: Ibn Tûmart settles down to Tinmel at the top Atlas in the South of Marrakesh, with his(her) believers(regular customers) to base(establish) the dynasty of Almohades .

1140: Almohades seizes full of the South then Taza, are overcome to Ceuta but remport the battle to Melilla La powerful fundamentalist dynasty of the Islam of Almohades will leave to the Jews only the choice between the conversion and the death.

1147: The leader Abdul-Mu'min seizes Marrakesh, and reconquérit Al-Andalus. The dynasty of Almohades succeeds that of Almoravides. Where from the construction of the mosque Koutoubia.

1163: Almohades unifies has fault their conquests the Maghreb. And make of Seville, Al Andalus's capital.

1196: Almohades begins(affects) the construction of the Tower Hassan in Rabat.

1212: The allied Christians of Castile, Aragon and Navarre gains(wins) the battle on the almohades strengths in the battle of Las Navas of Tolosa what will have for consequence the end of Al-Andalus.

1229: It is the death of the Caliph almohade Yahyâ al-Mu`tasim, caliph of Marrakesh

1233: The local revolts multiply. Abû Muhammad succeeded his al-Ma'mûn father Idrîs, he resumes(takes back) the city of Marrakesh, he expels from the city Fes the rebels Beni Mari who are a tribe Mérinides, nomads come from the South of Morocco.

1245: Mérinides ( 1262-1465 ) goes the conquest of Morocco where they make of the city Fes their capital, and, also settles down in the Saharan oases, removes(unties) completely Marrakesh of its trades with the South.

1276: Mérinides gains(wins) the town of Tinmel and massacre the last almohades descendants.

The prosperity of this province rested(based) on the exploitation(operation) of natural resources (produced by the sea, the olive oil), the development of the business and the city construction, the most famous of which, Morning glory, delivered bronzes, sculptured decorations(sets), mosaics and paints(paintings).

In 285, for still badly defined reasons, the Roman administration abandoned(gave up) the major part of the annexed territory

Idrisides: first Moroccan dynasty Of the VIIIth in the XVIIIth century, several big dynasties succeeded one another.
These warlike monks come from Sahara belonging to the Berber tribe of Sanhadjas spread their conception of a strict Islamic faith.

 

Mérinides and Ouattassides (XIIIe-XVIe century)

Mérinides, native of high plateaus of oriental Morocco, gave itself a new capital, Fes based(established) in 1276 by Abou Youssef Yacoub. Big defender of the religious orthodoxy, this last one began(undertook) in his turn the construction of numerous mosques and médersas through Morocco.
Saadiens (XVIe-XVIIe century) But the peace seems an empty word in Morocco. Big Moulay Ismaîl died in 1727, the tribes of the Atlas, not having any more to be afraid of theis iron hand, begin to stir, try to conquer coast(ribs); the religious factions sow(scatter) the disorder(confusion) in campaigns(countrysides) sons(threads) and brothers quarrel the power.

Saadiens Originaires of the valley of Draa, having eliminated Ouattassides, succeeded in protecting an independence which threatened at once(at the same time) the Europeans and the Turks

The Dynasty of Alaouites


Native of Tafilalet and descendants of Ali, Alaouites based(established) in the XVIIth century the dynasty which reigns even today. The most famous of the sovereigns, Moulay Ismaïl, governed the country during fifty five years ( 1672-1727 )